Part I Reading Comprehension (2x20)
It was December 25. Marie, a 13-year-old Australian girl, was happy. It was Christmas and Marie's mother was making a very special cake. She put four smell coins into the cake and then baked it. The four coins were for good luck. After dinner, Marie and her family ate the cake. They found three coins in the cake and put them on the table. Where was the fourth one? It was missing (找不到的)，but Marie's mother didn't notice.
After Christmas, Marie got sick. She coughed and couldn't speak. Marie's parents took her to hospital. Doctors at the hospital looked her over and then said, “We are sory, but we can't help her." For 12 years, Marie didn't speak. But like other common people, she grew up, she got a job, she got married. One day, when Marie was 25 years old, she got a sore throat. She began to cough. She coughed up something small and black. What was it? Marie didn't know. She took it to a hospital. A doctor at the hospital said,“This is a coin!" the doctor told Marie,“I think you can speak again.”
Emotion is sometimes regarded as the opposite of reason; s is suggested by phrase such as”appeal to emotions rather than reason”and “ don' t let your emotions take over ”. Emotional reactions sometimes produce consequences or thoughts which people may later regret or disagree with; but during an emotional state, they could not control their actions. Thus, it is generally believed that one of the most distinctive facts about human beings is a contradiction between emotion and reason.
However, recent empirical studies do not suggest there is a clear distinction between reason and emotion. Indeed, anger or fear can often be thought of as an instinctive response to observed fact. The human mind possesses many possible reactions to the external world. Those reactions can lie on a continuum, with some of them involving the extreme of pure intellectuallogic, which is often called “cold”，and others involving the extremes of pure emotion not related to logical agreement, which is called“ the heat of passion" . The relation logic and emotion merits careful study. Passion, emotion, or feeling can reinforce an argument, event one based primarily on reason. This is especially true in religion or ideology, which frequently demands an all-or-nothing rejection or acceptance. In such areas of thought, human beings have to adopt a comprehensive view partly backed by empirical argument and partly by feeling and passion. Moreover, several researchers have suggested that typically there is no“pure”decision or thought; that is, no thought is based“purely” on intellectual logic or“ purely”on emotion一most decisions are founded on a mixture of both.
China's birth rate has been falling since 2016一for example, 12 million new births were recorded in 2020, but the number is expected to drop below 10 million in 2021 despite a series of pronatalist policies taken by the government. And although the two-child policy introduced in 2016 caused an uptick in the number of newborns, it failed to reverse the falling birth rate trend.
Can the three-child policy introduced last year succeed where earlier favorable family planning policies failed?
The picture doesn't look good, though. China's birth rate in 2020 declined to 1.3 percent, far lower than the replacement rate of 2.1, according to the seventh national census results. Since the population of women of childbearing age in China has reached its peak, it will continue to decline.
From the perspective of economics, having children is essentially an economic decision. The costs and benefits of having a child play a key role in such families' decision.
As for benefits, children carry on the family name and can help strengthen the bond between a man and woman. And having children gives an assurance to parents that they will have someone to take care of them when they get old.
When it comes to costs, women have to endure physical and mental stress to give birth and bring up children. Childbirth is painful and, in extreme cases, could be fatal. Also, new mothers, in general, find it difcult to adjust family and work life. Plus, having children also means additional expenses and in some cases cutting costs to provide good education for the children, as well as dedicating huge amounts of time to bring them up.
Apparently, people tend to have more children if there are more benefits and fewer children if the costs outweigh the benefits. That most couples in today prefer to have just one child means there are more costs than benefts of having more children.
Besides, with the improvement of the pension system in China, elderly people today depend less on their offspring, and thanks to the continuous increase in the number of well- educated and financially independent women, quite a few young women consider marriage more of an option than a necessity. These factors have also played a role in the decline in the birth rate.
Moreover, because of the shortage of quality education and good schools, parents have to spend large amounts of money and time to ensure their children get admitted to good schools and colleges so they can get quality education, leading to frequent arguments and conflicts in families, and prompting many couples to not have a second, let alone a third, child. The stress and tension of parents infect children. And stress and unhappiness could undermine the mental health of a child.
To address these problems, especially to reduce the education burden of students, and by default their parents, the government introduced some policies, including the“double reduction" policy, recently.
High housing prices are also discouraging many young couples from having children. Cities and towns where housing prices are relatively low usually have higher fertility rates around the world.
More importantly, in most cases, women still shoulder most of the responsibilities of bringing up a child, and experts and surveys say women usually find themselves at a disadvantage at the workplace after giving birth.
In Denmark, an advanced economy, for example, working mothers get lower salaries compared with men even 20 years after giving birth despite having the same education level and years of experience. While a longer paid maternity leave may protect women from being dismissed or demoted, such women are still ignored when it comes to promotion and increments. In fact, studies show that a longer paid maternity leave has lttle effect on boosting the fertility rate if women are more concerned about their career prospects.
But there is no need to be over-pessimistic. Children still play an indispensable role in a family, and despite the improving social services, many grown-up children still take care of their aged parents.
Apart from improving education quality and reining in housing prices, however, the govermment should also take measures to meet the real needs of working mothers, in order to boost the birth rate. For instance, establishing more day childcare centers can free working mothers of the responsibility of taking care of children by neglecting their jobs.
In East Asia, the low fertility rate is largely attributed to women's lower position in the family. Many women are tred of rushing back and forth between work and housework, while men are rarely extending a helping hand. So they have decided not to marry, and if they marry, not to have children. Thus men have to shoulder their part of the social and familial responsibilities to promote gender equality. It will not only promote domestic harmony but also can help increase the fertility rate.
With the coming of the Internet, online communities have figured out a way to generate profit from the sharing of those underused property. Using websites and social media groups that facilitate the buying and selling of second-hand goods it is now easier than ever for peer-to-peer sharing activities to take place. And this is known as the sharing economy.
These popular online platforms are providing a chance for people to make a quick fortune. To give an example, busy parents previously might not have bothered with setting up a stall at the local market to sell their children 's old equipment, but with online marketplaces, parents are now able to sell on those hardly worn baby clothes that their children have outgrown so as to put some cash back into their pockets.
Businesses have also caught on to the profitability of the sharing economy and are seeking to gain from making use of those underutilized resources. Companies like Airbnb act as a middleman for people to cash in on their unused rooms and houses and let them out as profitable accommodation. Another example is Uber, which encourages people to use their own personal cars as taxis to make some extra cash in their free time.
This move towards a sharing economy is not without criticisms. Unlike businesses, unregulated individuals do not have to follow certain regulations and this can lead to poorer and inconsistent quality of goods and services and a higher risk of fraud. Nevertheless, in the consumerist society we live in today, the increased opportunities to sell on our unwanted and underused goods can lead to a lesser impact on our environment.
16.Why can people now sell things more easily?
A.People nowadays buy more things.
B.Businesses want to buy the things they don't use.
C.There are now more market stalls.
D.There are now online platforms to do business.
17. Which of these is something that we might underutilize?
A.Thick coat in a cold country.
B.Clothes our babies don' t or can't wear any more.
C. The latest smartphone.
D.The storeroom in our house.
18.It might be a problem for unregulated individuals to sell to others because______.
A.what they sell might be of a lower quality,
B.they have to follow certain regulations.
C.they don't have a business license.
D.they like to criticize their buyers.
19. What might be a good title for this article?
A.The consumerist society
B. Parents who need money
C.The rise of the sharing economy
D. Why we buy things we don't need
Part II Close(1 x 20)
Part III True or False(2x5)
Part IV Translation (40 points)
Section A English-Chinese Translation (2 x 5)
The film we saw last night was nothing but interesting.
Section B Blanked Cloze(3 x5)
the younger generation
Section C Chinese English Translation (3 x 5)
His exam result is disappointing.
There are several children swimming in the swimming pool.
Which one do you prefer, Chinese food or Westerm food?
Please pick up Professor Li at 8 tomorrow morning.
At this conference, the government advocated equal employment opportunities for men and women.
Part V Error Correction (2 x 10)
1. Don't be afraid of talking to someone who is different with you.
2. This is the most interesting book which I have ever read.
3. If I am you, I wouldn't be wasting much time to chat on Internet. am改为were
4. What is the name of the town in that you live.
5.I look forward to see you at your office on July 18th.
6. Now Tom lives in a small apartment and his dog, getting by social security.
7. China has thousands of islands, the largest of them is Taiwan. them改为which
8. There are many reports of people feel lonely and isolated when they quit social media.
9. The lion dance perform on Tuesday is to celebrate the lost day of Chinese New Year.
10. My first impressions of John was that he was smart and not bad-looking.
Part VI Writing (20 points)
Success is the ability to go from failure to failure without losing enthusiasm.
J. K. Rowling, the author of the famous Harry Porter novels, wrote her books during her work breaks. Tapping into her vivid imagination, she created a world that sold more than 500 million books and be came hit movies. She is regarded as one of the most successful fiction author in history, with an estimated net worth of $650 million. However, her success didn't come easy. She was rejected by publishers for a dozen times before one took a chance on her.